To complement the blog series on predatory journals and congresses, MPIP caught up with Patty Baskin to gain her expert insights on threats posed by predatory journals and what authors and publication professionals can do to protect their work. Patty Baskin is the Executive Editor at the American Academy of Neurology and immediate past president of the Council of Science Editors.
Visit the MPIP YouTube Channel to view the video of the interview today!
In 2008, Jeffrey Beall, an academic librarian, noticed that he was receiving spam email solicitations from broad-scoped, newly formed open access (OA) journals whose main intent seemed to be the collection of article processing/publication charges. He later coined the term “predatory” to describe these journals and publishers with dubious practices. Since then other terms have been used, such as “questionable,” “deceptive,” and “pseudo.” However, regardless of what term is used, the practices of these journals and publishers are strikingly similar. (See graphic)
Predatory publishers are a threat to scientific integrity as they make it difficult to demarcate sound science from fake science that can be damaging to public health.
In 2016 the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) issued a complaint against OMICS, a publisher of hundreds of online journals, accusing them of deceptive practices including publishing articles with little to no peer-review and listing prominent academics as editorial board members without their consent. Then, in 2017, an article published in Bloomberg Businessweek reported that several prominent pharmaceutical companies, including AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead, Merck, Novartis, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, and Pfizer, had published in OMICS journals or participated in OMICS congresses. The article questioned “whether drugmakers are purposely ignoring what they know of OMICS’s reputation or are genuinely confused amid the profusion of noncredible journals.”
This article brought the problem of predatory journals and publishers to the forefront at Pfizer and increased our awareness of this growing problem. Since then we have taken steps to address this issue by increasing colleagues’ awareness of predatory journals, publishers, and congresses, and making changes to our publications software application such that it is easier to identify OMICS journals before they are imported into the system. We are also researching subscription-based tools such as the Journals & Congresses database, which has stringent criteria for inclusion.
But what else can be done to reduce the amount of research published by predatory journals, not only by pharmaceutical companies but by all parties involved in the development of medical/scientific publications? (See graphic)
Some organizations have already taken action. In 2014, the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) developed more stringent criteria for indexing and required journals to reapply for inclusion and, in November 2017, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a statement requesting that NIH-funded research be submitted to reputable journals to help protect the credibility of papers arising from its research investment.
Please note that the content of this blog post was prepared by me, Angela Sykes, in my personal capacity. The opinions expressed in this presentation are my own and do not reflect the views of Pfizer.
Most of us are aware of “predatory” journals and congresses that promote themselves as legitimate but practice deceptive or exploitative practices at the expense of unsuspecting authors. Many fail to deliver even the basic editorial or publishing services provided by reputable journals or the networking value provided by legitimate congresses. Beyond the implications for authors in terms of cost, credibility, and reputation of being associated with these predatory journals/congresses, they also rob the scientific community of timely access to research. So what steps can we take to protect ourselves from their predatory practices?
To provide you with a framework for making your own assessments, below are 8 criteria I use to evaluate the probable legitimacy of journals or congresses based on their websites. Try not to put too much emphasis on a single item, but if a journal/congress website falls short on more than one, you may be dealing with a predator.
Less is more! Legitimate journal/congress websites typically have a “clean” look. Conversely, predators often have a “busy” look and inconsistent font choices, poor text and photo alignment, bad line breaks, and a plethora of animations. In short, they look amateurish. Scrolling text banners at the top of the page are especially suspicious. Beware if contact information uses free email providers such as Hotmail or Gmail.
Although small international journals/congresses can be perfectly legitimate and still have a few English-as-a-second-language grammar and usage errors, a large number of typos and grammatical errors is a clear red flag. Also, look for sections that are riddled with errors alternating with error-free sections; this may be a clue that some content was plagiarized.
Designers of many predatory websites seem unable to reduce photo sizes proportionally, leading to “squashed” images. Also, be suspicious of a small journal/congress with a large number of alleged editorial board or faculty members, or “rock star” names in the field. These people probably are unaware they are on the website, and their photos may have been captured from LinkedIn, Facebook, etc. Finally, are photos from a past meeting cropped tightly, in such a way that you can’t tell if there were 20 attendees or 200?
Logos of sponsoring or partnering organizations should be functional hyperlinks. Predatory websites often present a dizzying collage of nonfunctional logo images, some wildly inappropriate for the subject matter of the journal/congress.
Look out for that little construction worker! Legitimate websites should have complete content. For example, a journal editorial board that is “Coming Soon” or an impending congress with venue information still “Under Construction” is likely a predator. Additionally, journals or congresses with an extremely broad focus, perhaps combining medical and physical sciences, are likely predators.
Can you make your own travel arrangements if you prefer? Required use of preferred travel and accommodations vendors is a red flag for congresses. Such companies are usually owned by the sponsoring organization. Look for clear statements of all registration costs and refund policies. Look for a secure mechanism for credit/debit card payments (lock icon in the URL), and avoid sites that merely provide bank transfer information.
A very devious tactic predatory journals and congresses often use is to craft a name very similar to that of a legitimate counterpart, or to “clone” the content of a legitimate website, or to associate their predatory journal with a legitimate one on the same site. Often they just add a word, such as “American” or “International,” to a legitimate journal/congress name. Unmasking these frauds can be very challenging.
Predators will often spoof a location in the United States or Europe, but there are web tools that can trace the true location of the web domain housing a website. You can also use Google Earth to check the street address and make sure it is not simply a house or a storefront. Be cautious if the address given is in Delaware, as incorporation laws make it easy for an overseas predator to register a business there.
Finally, network with your senior colleagues. Has anyone ever heard of this journal or congress? Have they published in the journal or attended a meeting? Were their experiences positive?
A little due diligence upfront will pay off in the long run to ensure you get the most from your publication and congress experiences. Although the tips I’ve provided here may give you some objective evidence regarding the legitimacy of a journal/meeting, your instincts are also valuable. If it feels wrong, it probably is.